A very distant galaxy shows evidence of much dust, while a quasar nearly the same distance contains the most massive black hole ever detected. In a big bang cosmology, we are viewing these two objects from a very early epoch in the universe. There is not enough time in the current understanding of cosmic evolution for either of these objects to exist. Hence, these observations present tremendous problems for the standard cosmology.
According to the big bang model, the universe began as a very hot, dense gas 13.8 billion years ago. As the universe expanded and cooled, atoms eventually formed, from which stars and galaxies gradually condensed. Since the big bang universe would begin with only hydrogen and helium (and a tiny amount of lithium), the first stars consisted only of those light elements. It took a few generations of stars deriving their energy by nuclear fusion of the lighter elements into heavier ones to produce the elements that we are more familiar with, such as carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron. Once galaxies formed, matter collected in their cores to form very massive black holes. The production of the heavier elements in large quantity and the formation of supermassive black holes would take time, probably a few billion years.